TURKEY’S ENERGY POLICY & LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK IN CLIMATE CHANGE

Turkey is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and showed strong economic growth during the past decade, but it is still considered a “middle income” country.

One of the most efficient way to fight against the negative effects of the climate change can be reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and Turkey didn’t make any commitment to reduce GHGs based on any specific reference year, due to the fact that it relied on historically low GHG emissions, therefore reducing emissions were seen as a threat to further economic  improvement.

Turkish energy experts have predicted to settle a new energy generation strategy by limiting energy emissions and as the future strategies, Turkey took a step forward to solve this issue and passed the Act on Renewable Energy in 2005, biggest step for the lowering of Turkey’s Green House Gas emissions was commenced. Wind, solar and hydro-power energy investments attracted considerable attention (and still attracts) after the State-based incentives are set forth, which provides lowering emissions according to Kyoto Protocol. According to the Act investors are obligated to buy a certain percentage of electricity from renewable sources, therefore the Act is giving security that small scale and domestic renewable producers have access to the grid and can sell any remaining electricity.

Here are some of the other remarkable legislations based on the climate change: Renewable Energy Law (Law Code: 5346); Geothermal Resources And Mineral Waters (Law Code: 5686); Energy Efficiency Law (Law Code: 5627); Soil Conservation and Land Use (Law Code: 5403); Energy Efficiency Strategy Paper 2012-2023 and Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2023

Quick explanation of the purposes and principles for some of the important Law Codes:

  • 1- Energy Efficiency Law (No:5627):

The purpose of this Act: Increasing energy efficiency, avoiding waste, taking the pressure off the energy costs on the economy and protecting the environment.

Abovementioned Act intends to reach this by increasing and encouraging energy efficiency in energy generation, transmission, distribution and consumption phases at industrial establishments, buildings, power generation plants, transmission and distribution networks and transportation, raising energy awareness and training of citizens, and using renewable energy sources.

The Act also regulates energy efficiency management legislation for industrial establishments, commercial, service or public sector buildings. It conditions that these establishments are required to

nominate one of their employees as an energy manager who will be responsible for compliance with energy efficiency legislation.

  • 2- Geothermal Resources And Mineral Waters Act (No:5686):

The purpose of this Act: Increasing the production and consumption of geothermal energy.

The Act contains the procedure, elements and approval for regulating transferring and revoking operation licenses, auditing the actions of firms while safeguarding resource and the environment. The Act also regulates natural gas that is produced during the process of geothermal production.

The Act sets forth the rules and principles for rightful ownership of the resources, during the exploration and operational periods of the geothermal and natural mineral water resources that are/will be specified along with gases with geothermal origins, their turnover, abandonment, bid tendering and terminating the use of resources and protection and extraction of resources.

  • 3- Renewable Energy Law (No: 5346)

The purpose of this Act: Encouraging the use of renewable energy and encircling the procedures and principles of the conservation of renewable energy resource areas, certification of the energy generated from these sources, and use of these sources.

The Act conducts the principles for the conservation of renewable resource areas and introduces incentives for domestic energy projects, providing feed-in tariffs for electricity from renewable energy sources. The legal essence holding a generation license is granted a Renewable Energy Resource Certificate to identify and monitor the resource type in purchasing and sale of the electrical energy generated from renewable energy resources in the domestic and international markets.

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